Anemia is a condition in which there is a deficiency of red cells or haemoglobin in the blood. Haemoglobin is a main part of red blood cells that binds oxygen. More than 52 percent of women is affected with anemia. Women are affected more than compared to men. Now let us understand Types of Anemia and Causes of Anemia:
Types of Anemia
There are around 400 different Types of Anemia. The major seven types of anaemia are:
Iron deficiency anaemia
It is caused by a shortage of iron in the body. Your bone marrow needs iron to make haemoglobin which is a protein molecule in the red blood cells. Without enough iron, the body cannot produce enough haemoglobin for RBCs
Vitamin- deficiency anaemia/ magaloblastic anaemia
This occurs when you body does not have enough of folate or Vit B12. Vit B12 is necessary for the formation of R.B.C. It usually happens when your digestive system is not able to absorb the vitamin. Usually associated with pernicious anaemia, gastrectomy chron’s disease or celiac disease.
In this anaemia your body destroys cells in your stomach that helps you to absorb vitamin vit B12.
Sickle cell anaemia
It is an inherited disorder that affects mainly African-American and hispanic americans.
In this condition red cells become crescent shaped because of genetic defect.
They break down rapidly,so that oxygen doesnot get to the body’s organs causing anaemia.
This is a condition which occurs when there is a marked reduction in the formation of red blood cells due to failure of bone marrow to produce new cells. Bone marrow is a red spongy material inside bones which produce stem cells which give rise to other cells.
It is a form of anaemia due to haemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells either in the blood vessels or outside the blood vessels.
This condition can be acquired or inherited.
This is a rare inherited disorder affects bone marrow and results in bone marrow failure. Bone marrow fails to produce enough red blood cells to replace the dead red blood cells.
Causes of Anemia
The Causes of Anemia can be divided into three groups:
1. Anemia caused by blood loss as in case of ulcers, haemorrhoids, gastritis, cancer, accidents, use of NSAIDs (non sterioidal antiinflammatory drugs), menorrhagia and child birth.
2. Anemia caused by decreased or faulty red blood cell production.
In this condition body produce less number of blood cells or blood cells may not function correctly. The conditions associated includes:
- Sickle cell anemia
- Bone marrow and stem cell problems
- Vitamin deficiency
3. Anemia caused by destruction of blood cells. The conditions associated includes:
- Liver and kidney failure due to toxins
- Auto immune disorders
- Infection, drugs , snake bite
- Severe hypertension, clotting disorders, burns
- Exposure to chemicals
- Enlarged spleen and disorders of spleen
- Inherited conditions such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia